romanian president list


Likewise, it shall be incompatible with the exercise of any office of professional representation paid by a trading organization. She is the current Minister of Family, Youth and Equality of Opportunity. Under the terms of the organic law, the disputes resulting from the activity of the Court of Audit shall be solved by specialized courts of law. (2) Education at all levels shall be carried out in Romanian. If, within 30 days at the latest of the submitting date, the notified Chamber does not pronounce on the ordinance, the latter shall be deemed adopted and shall be sent to the other Chamber, which shall also make a decision in an emergency procedure. Parliament shall grant confidence to the Government by a majority vote of the Deputies and Senators. Otherwise, for the provision in question only, the bill shall be returned to the first notified Chamber, which will make a final decision in an emergency procedure. (4) Minors under the age of fifteen may not be employed for any paid labour. He served as the president of Romania from 1996 to 2000. (1) Ministries shall be set up, organized, and shall function in accordance with the law. (1) The judges appointed by the President of Romania shall be irremovable, according to the law. (3) The mineral resources of public interest, the air, the waters with energy potential that can be used for national interests, the beaches, the territorial sea, the natural resources of the economic zone and the continental shelf, as well as other possessions established by the organic law, shall be public property exclusively. (8) Legally acquired assets shall not be confiscated. (3) If the Prime Minister finds himself in one of the situations stipulated under Article 106, except for him being dismissed, or if it is impossible for him to exercise his powers, the President of Romania shall designate another member of the Government as Acting Prime Minister, in order to carry out the powers of the Prime Minister, until a new Government is formed. (7) Decisions by the Superior Council of Magistracy shall be final and irrevocable, except for those stipulated under article 144 (2) .

(2) Citizens have the right to pensions, paid maternity leave, medical care in public health centres, unemployment benefits, and other forms of public or private social securities, as stipulated by the law. (1) The right of property, as well as the debts incurring on the State are guaranteed. However, unlike other federal republic countries, Romania has a semi-presidential republic. (6) The judicial control of administrative acts of the public authorities, by way of the contentious business falling within the competence of administrative courts, is guaranteed, except for those regarding relations with the Parliament, as well as the military command acts. Right of a person aggrieved by a public authority. (2) The Chamber of Deputies or the Senate may carry a simple motion expressing their position as to a matter of domestic or foreign policy or, as the case may be, a matter having been the subject of an interpellation. (2) Other specialized agencies may be organized in subordination to the Government or Ministries, or as autonomous administrative authorities. Membership of the Government shall cease upon resignation, dismissal, disenfranchisement, incompatibility, death, or in any other cases provided by law. (11) Any person shall be presumed innocent till found guilty by a final decision of the court. (2) Powers provided under Articles 88-90 shall not be exercised by the Acting President during the interim of the presidential office. (3) In situations such as under paragraph (2) the provisions of Article 103 shall apply accordingly. The current president of Romania is Klaus Iohannis, who has been serving since 21 December 2014. (1) The Government shall, in accordance with its government programme accepted by Parliament, ensure the implementation of the domestic and foreign policy of the country, and exercise the general management of public administration. (2) Legally established organizations have the right to forward petitions, exclusively on behalf of the collective body they represent. (2) Local taxes and duties shall be established by the local or county councils, within the limits and under the terms of the law. (1) During his term of office, the President of Romania may not be a member of any political party, nor may he perform any other public or private office. (6) After the lawsuit has begun, the court is bound, according to the law, to check, on a regular basis and no later than 60 days, the lawfulness and grounds of the preventive custody, and to order at once the release of the defendant if the grounds for the preventive custody have ceased to exist or if the court finds there are no new grounds justifying the continuance of the custody. (2) The candidate whose election has been validated shall take before the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, in a joint sitting, the following oath: "I solemnly swear that I will dedicate all my strength and the best of my ability for the spiritual and material welfare of the Romanian people, to abide by the Constitution and laws of the country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of my fellow-citizens, Romania's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity. (4) The jurisdiction for judging such cases shall belong to the High Court of Cassation and Justice. (2) Citizens holding public offices, as well as the military are liable for the loyal fulfilment of the obligations they are bound to, and shall, for this purpose, take the oath as requested by law. Kwame Nkrumah was a Ghanaian revolutionary and politician. (2) Only the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate and the President of Romania have the right to demand legal proceedings to be taken against members of the Government for acts committed in the exercise of their office. (1) The Government shall exercise its term of office until the validation of the general parliamentary elections. Under the law and the international treaties Romania is a party to, the Army shall contribute to the collective defence in military alliance systems, and participate in peace keeping or peace restoring missions. Institution of proceedings against a member of the Government entails his suspension from office. (4) Foreign citizens and stateless persons who do not understand or do not speak the Romanian language shall be entitled to take cognizance of all the file papers and proceedings, to speak in court and draw conclusions, by means of an interpreter; in criminal law suits, this right is ensured free of charge. (4) The provisions regarding the High Court of Cassation and Justice shall be implemented within 2 years at most of the date of coming into force of the revision law. Elena Ceauescu was a Romanian communist politician who served as the first Deputy Prime Minister of Romania from 29 March 1980 to 22 December 1989. (9) The release of a detained or arrested person shall be mandatory if the reasons for such steps have ceased to exist, as well as under other circumstances stipulated by the law. She also served as the Minister of Labor and Social Protection from 23 December 2020 to 25 November 2021. (2) Elections to the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall be held within three months at the most of the expiry of the term of office or the Parliament dissolution. Public meetings, processions, demonstrations or any other assembly shall be free and may be organized and held only peacefully, without arms of any kind whatsoever. (3) The provisions of paragraph (1) of article 83 shall apply starting from the next presidential term of office. (2) The motion of censure may be initiated by at least one fourth of the total number of Deputies and Senators, and shall be notified to the Government upon the date of its tabling. Secrecy of the letters, telegrams and other postal communications, of telephone conversations, and of any other legal means of communication is inviolable. (2) The political parties or organizations which, by their aims or activity, militate against political pluralism, the principles of a State governed by the rule of law, or against the sovereignty, integrity or independence of Romania shall be unconstitutional. Ever since its independence, Romania has had a number of prolific leaders who have played a quintessential role in helping to move the country forward with their leadership skills and magnificent administrative capabilities. freedom biden slavery ours trump choice (1) Children and young people shall enjoy special protection and assistance in the pursuit of their rights. (4) Public property is inalienable. Promulgation shall be given within twenty days after receipt of the law. He also sent Romanian troops to serve as part of George Bushs war in Iraq. (4) Decisions and ordinances adopted by the Government shall be signed by the Prime Minister, countersigned by the Ministers who are bound to carry them into execution, and shall be published in the Official Gazette of Romania. Emil Constantinescu is a Romanian professor and politician. (1) Revision of the Constitution may be initiated by the President of Romania on the proposal of the Government, by at least one quarter of the number of Deputies or Senators, as well as by at least 500,000 citizens with the right to vote. (1) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall meet in two ordinary sessions every year. (4) Decisions of the Constitutional Court shall be published in the Official Gazette of Romania. Trade unions, employers' associations, and vocational associations shall be established and shall carry out their activity according to their statutes, according to the law. One of the most prolific writers of Romania, Sadoveanu is best remembered for his adventure and historical novels. (2) In the territorial-administrative units where citizens belonging to a national minority have a significant weight, provision shall be made for the oral and written use of that national minority's language in the relations with the local public administration authorities and the decentralized public services, under the terms stipulated by the organic law. (3) The number of Deputies and Senators shall be established by the electoral law, in proportion to the population of Romania. (3) At the request of the Government or on its own initiative, Parliament may pass bills or legislative proposals under an emergency procedure, established in accordance with the Standing Orders of each Chamber. (1) The County Council is the public administration authority coordinating the activity of commune and town councils, with a view to carrying out the public services of county interest. The following lists the presidents of Romania. (2) All employees have the right to measures of social protection. (1) Romanian citizenship can be acquired, retained or lost as provided by the organic law. (3) The powers of the Prefect shall be established by an organic law. (3) The High Court of Cassation and Justice shall provide a unitary interpretation and implementation of the law by the other courts of law, according to its competence. In such cases, the Minister of Justice, the president of the High Court of Cassation and Justice, and the general Public Prosecutor of the Public Prosecutor's Office attached to the High Court of Cassation and Justice shall not be entitled to vote. (2) The candidate who, in the first ballot, obtained a majority of votes of the electors entered on the electoral lists shall be declared elected. (4) If the motion of censure fails to be passed, the Deputies and the Senators who signed it may not submit another one during the same session, except for the case the Government assumes responsibility in conformity with Article 114. She was also the First Lady of Romania from 28 March 1974 to 22 December 1989, during which her husband Nicolae Ceauescu served as the first President of Romania. (1) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate may decide the impeachment of the President of Romania for high treason, in a joint session, based on the votes of at least two thirds of the number of deputies and senators. (1) The President of Romania shall be elected by universal, equal, direct, secret an free suffrage. (3) If a treaty Romania is to become a party to comprises provisions contrary to the Constitution, its ratification shall only take place after the revision of the Constitution. (5) It is prohibited to establish extraordinary courts of law. The emolument and other rights of the President of Romania shall be established by law. By continuing to navigate, you express your consent to the use of cookies. (2) The structure of the national defence system, the preparation of the population, economy and territory for defence, as well as the military shall be regulated by an organic law. Nicolae Ceausescu was the first president of Romania, while Ion Iliescu was the first to be democratically elected. Ceauescu's communist government was totalitarian and was responsible for human rights abuses and severe repression. Romanian president Klaus Iohannis, who is also the, (Former World Number One Romanian Tennis Legend), (Romanian Politcian, Founder and Leader of the Legionary Movement (Iron Guard)), (Romanian National Hero Known for Uniting All of Romania for the First Time), (Romanian Communist Party Leader and Romania's First Communist Prime Minister (1952 - 1955)), (Member of the Romanian Great National Assembly (1980 -1989) and Son of Leaders Nicolae and Elena Ceauescu), (First Woman Prime Minister of Romania (2018 - 2019) and President of the PSD), (Romanian Kickboxer and Politician, Who Won thr Bronze Medal at 2017 Kickboxing World Championship ), (Romanian Politician and Social Democratic Party Leader Who Was Imprisoned for Corruption), (Controversial Romanian Senator and Lawyer Who Is a Major Anti-Vaccine Activist), (Prime Minister of Romania (2012 - 2015)), (Romanian Scientist Who Is Known for His Research on 'Insulin' and His Anti-Semitic Writings), (34th Prime Minister of Romania (1931 - 1932)), (Moldavian Prince Who Became an Advisor to Tsar Peter the Great of Russia), (Roman General and Brother-in-law of Roman Emperor Caligula), (Member of the European Parliament for Romania (2009 - 2014)), (Romanian Politician and Former European Commissioner for Cohesion and Reforms (2014 - 2019)), (Retired Romanian Runner, Who Is an Olympic Gold Medalist and a 3-Time World Champion), (32nd Prime Minister of Romania Who was Later Convicted of Treason and Given Life Imprisonment), (39th Prime Minister of Romania Who was Assassinated by Iron Guard Members with Nazi Support), (The First Female Politician to Serve as the Mayor of Bucharest), (Roman Political Agitator Who was Prosecuted for the Assassination of Publius Clodius Pulcher), (Romanian Communist Leader & World's First Female Foreign Minister), (Romanian Hero and Revolutionary Leader Who Led the 1821 Wallachian Uprising), (Romanian Political Figure, Journalist, Short Story Writer, and Novelist), (Former Romanian Tourism Minister Who Was Sentenced to Prison for Corruption Offenses), (Prime Minister of Romania (1863 - 1865)), (Romanian Mayor of Sector 1 and Former Member of the European Parliament for Romania (2019 - 2020)), (37th Prime Minister of Romania (1937 - 1938)), (Prime Minister of Romania Who Served for 5-Terms Between 1909 and 1927), (Former Deputy Prime Minister of Romania), (44th Prime Minister of Romania (August 1944 - December 1944) Following the Coup of 1944), (Romanian Politician and Christian Democratic Leader Who Established the Romanian Democratic Convention), (Prime Minister of Romania (2000 - 2004)), (Prime Minister of Romania (2008 - 2012)). (3) Other incompatibilities shall be established by organic law. (2) The Prefect is the representative of the Government at a local level and shall direct the decentralized public services of ministries and other bodies of the central public administration in the territorial-administrative units. Alaric I reigned as the first king of the Visigoths. (1) No one may be a Deputy and a Senator at the same time. This Constitution shall come into force on the date of its adoption by referendum. (1) Justice shall be administered by the High Court of Cassation and Justice, and the other courts of law set up by the law. Legality of acquirement shall be presumed. (2) All throughout the trial, the parties shall have the right to be assisted by a lawyer of their own choosing or appointed ex officio. (2) Parliament consists of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. You and I are quits, and its useless to draw up a list of mutual hurts, sorrows, and pains.Vladimir Mayakovsky (18931930), Sheathey call him Scholar JackWent down the list of the dead.Officers, seamen, gunners, marines,The crews of the gig and yawl,The bearded man and the lad in his teens,Carpenters, coal-passersall.Joseph I. C. Clarke (18461925), I made a list of things I haveto remember and a listof things I want to forget,but I see they are the same list.Linda Pastan (b. (5) The Constitutional Court shall be renewed by one third of its judges every three years, in accordance with the provisions of the Court's organic law. (4) The Government can only adopt emergency ordinances in exceptional cases, the regulation of which cannot be postponed, and have the obligation to give the reasons for the emergency status within their contents. Please click the "Downloads" icon in the Safari toolbar, open the first download in the list, List of presidents of Romania by time in office. (1) The Court of Audit shall exercise control over the formation, administration, and use of the financial resources of the State and public sector. (1) Faithfulness towards the country is sacred. The measure shall be proportional to the situation having caused it, applied without discrimination, and without infringing on the existence of such right or freedom. (2) It is binding upon the public authorities to give the Advocate of the People the necessary support in the exercise of his powers.

They shall be subject to the incompatibilities the law stipulates for judges. For faster navigation, this Iframe is preloading the Wikiwand page for, Note: preferences and languages are saved separately in https mode. Her life and career inspired a 2016 feature-length documentary by film director Radu Gabrea. Nstase retired from politics following a corruption trial and prison sentence. If Parliament does not sit in a session, it shall be convened de jure, within 24 hours of the outbreak of the aggression. (3) The State shall bear patrimony liability for any prejudice caused as a result of judicial errors. (3) If the enabling law so requests, ordinances shall be submitted to Parliament for approval, according to the legislative procedure, until the expiry of the enabling time limit. (1) The Superior Council of Magistracy shall guarantee the independence of justice. The Economic and Social Council shall be an advisory body of the Parliament and Government, in the specialized fields stated by the organic law for its establishment, organization, and functioning. (2) Search, detainment, or arrest of a person shall be permitted only in the cases and under the procedure provided by law. If you are using an Ad-Blocker, it might have mistakenly blocked our content. (3) The ways for exercising the right stipulated under paragraph (2) , including the use of interpreters or translations, shall be stipulated so as not to hinder the proper administration of justice and not to involve additional expenses to those interested. Goodies : Red Bubble During his final years, Stephen co-ruled with his son Bogdan III. Nicolae Ceauescu was a Romanian politician who served as the first president of the country. Notes: (5) Foreign troops can only enter, station, carry out operations, or pass through the Romanian territory under the terms of the law or the international treaties Romania is a party to. (1) The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate shall be elected for a term of office of 4 years, which may be extended de jure in the event of a mobilization, war, siege, or emergency, until such event has ceased to exist.

(1) In the exercise of their mandate Deputies and Senators shall be in the service of the people. Rule of law and reform of political institutions, President Klaus Iohannis Country Project. (1) Parliament passes constitutional, organic, and ordinary laws. He also played an influential role as an advocate of Pan-Africanism. If such legal proceedings have been requested, the President of Romania may decree that they be suspended from office. (3) The motion of censure shall be debated upon three days after its presentation in the joint sitting of the Chambers. Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo was a Roman general best remembered as the brother-in-law of the popular Roman Emperor Caligula. https://wiki.erepublik.com/index.php?title=List_of_presidents_of_Romania&oldid=786434. (3) Autonomous administrative authorities may be established by an organic law. (3) The exercise of the right of petition shall be exempt from tax. (2) The Government as a whole and each of its members shall exercise the mandate from the date of taking the oath. Ceauescu and his wife were convicted of genocide and executed by firing squad. The second session begins in September and is due to last by the end of December at the latest. (3) Cases of liability, and penalties applicable to members of the Government shall be regulated by a law on ministerial responsibility. As such, the role of the President is not limited to a ceremonial position and he enjoys some executive powers along with the government. a) to adjudicate on the constitutionality of laws, before the promulgation thereof upon notification by the President of Romania, one of the presidents of the two Chambers, the Government, the High Court of Cassation and Justice, the Advocate of the People, a number of at least 50 deputies or at least 25 senators, as well as ex officio, on initiatives to revise the Constitution; b) to adjudicate on the constitutionality of treaties or other international agreements, upon notification by one of the presidents of the two Chambers, a number of at least 50 deputies or at least 25 senators; c) to adjudicate on the constitutionality of the Standing Orders of Parliament, upon notification by the president of either Chamber, by a parliamentary group or a number of at least 50 Deputies or at least 25 Senators; d) to decide on objections as to the unconstitutionality of laws and ordinances, brought up before courts of law or commercial arbitration; the objection as to the unconstitutionality may also be brought up directly by the Advocate of the People; e) to solve legal disputes of a constitutional nature between public authorities, at the request of the President of Romania, one of the presidents of the two Chambers, the Prime Minister, or of the president of the Superior Council of Magistracy; f) to guard the observance of the procedure for the election of the President of Romania and to confirm the ballot returns; g) to ascertain the circumstances which justify the interim in the exercise of the office of President of Romania, and to report its findings to Parliament and the Government; h) to give advisory opinion on the proposal to suspend from office the President of Romania; l) to guard the observance of the procedure for the organization and holding of a referendum, and to confirm its returns; j) to check the compliance with the conditions for the exercise of the legislative initiative by citizens; k) to decide on the objections of unconstitutionality of a political party; l) to carry out also other duties stipulated by the organic law of the Court. Citizens of a national minority are entitled to be represented by one organization only. (1) The State recognizes and guarantees the right of persons belonging to national minorities to the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity. (1) Within the judicial activity, the Public Ministry shall represent the general interests of the society, and defend legal order, as well as the citizens' rights and freedoms. (2) Such restriction shall only be ordered if necessary in a democratic society.

(1) Citizens may freely associate into political parties, trade unions, employers' associations, and other forms of association. b) 2 representatives of the civil society, specialists in law, who enjoy a good professional and moral reputation, elected by the Senate; these shall only participate in plenary proceedings; c) the Minister of Justice, the president of the High Court of Cassation and Justice, and the general public prosecutor of the Public Prosecutor's Office attached to the High Court of Cassation and Justice. (2) Every citizen is guaranteed the right to establish his domicile or residence anywhere in the country, to emigrate, and to return to his country. Mihail Sadoveanu was a Romanian political figure, journalist, short story writer, and novelist. He was also a two-time Foreign Affairs Minister and four-time Internal Affairs Minister of Romania. (1) The sittings of both Chambers shall be public. In case a legislative initiative involves the amendment of the provisions of the State budget, or of the State social security budget, the request for information shall be compulsory. Stephen III of Moldavia or Stephen the Great was a Prince of Moldavia. (1) The laws and all other normative acts shall apply as far as they do not contravene the provisions of this Constitution. (1) A law shall be submitted for promulgation to the President of Romania. If not in session, the Chambers shall be convened by all means within 5 days after submittal, or, as the case may be, after forwarding.

1 Emil Constantinescu was the candidate of the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party (PN-CD) whose candidacy was supported as part of the larger right-leaning Romanian Democratic Convention (CDR) in both 1992 and 1996; (3) Judges of the Constitutional Court, the advocates of the people, magistrates, active members of the Armed Forces, policemen and other categories of civil servants, established by an organic law, shall not join political parties. (2) In the exercise of its powers, the Government shall co-operate with the social bodies concerned. (1) After consultation with the presidents of both Chambers and the leaders of the parliamentary groups, the President of Romania may dissolve Parliament, if no vote of confidence has been obtained to form a government within 60 days after the first request was made, and only after rejection of at least two requests for investiture. If such time limits are exceeded, it shall be deemed that the bill or legislative proposal has been adopted. (2) The proposal of suspension from office may be initiated by at least one third of the number of Deputies and Senators, and the President shall be immediately notified thereof. (2) The County Council shall be elected and shall function in accordance with the law. (2) The protection measures taken by the Romanian State for the preservation, development and expression of identity of the persons belonging to national minorities shall conform to the principles of equality and non-discrimination in relation to the other Romanian citizens. (1) The Advocate of the People shall exercise his powers ex officio or at the request of persons aggrieved in their rights and freedoms, within the limits established by law. Corbulo was famous, so much so that Emperor Nero feared his reputation and ordered him to commit suicide.