global water availability

.horizontal-line-top { Perhaps the most concerning feature throughout the years of the maps development has been persistent, distinct patterns that define emerging classes of water haves and have-nots around the world. } Key regions include California (with the 2006-10 and 2011-15 droughts) and Texas (the 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2010-15 droughts), and the 2014-17 drought in southeastern Brazil when Sao Paulowith more than 12 million people, one of the worlds most populous citiesnearly ran out of water. font-weight: 600; text-decoration: underline !important; min-height: 30px; As complex as that sounds, the results are actually quite simple to understand. font-size: 1.2em; Photo: UNOPS, Sustainable Development and Climate Action, TheUnited Nations Water Conference(1977), International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade(1981-1990), International Conference on Water and the Environment(1992), Water for Life International Decade for Action 2005-2015, 2015-2030 Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2015 Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development, 2015 Paris Agreement within the UN Convention Framework on Climate Change, WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. bottom: 100px; } Over 2 billion people already lack access to safe drinking water at home, and by 2025 over half of the worlds population will reside in water-stressed areas. margin: 1.5rem 0 2rem 0; margin: 3rem auto; text-align: center;*/ text-align: center; Processes occurring deep within Earth constantly are shaping landforms. font-family: 'FontAwesome'; Those benefits are experienced specifically by poor children and in the disadvantaged communities that need them most. The changing climate is also leading to changing extremes in flooding and drought. /* **** icons for links ***** */ Of all of the water on Earth, 97% is saltwater, leaving a mere 3% as freshwater, approximately 1% of which is readily available for our use. The worlds population is becoming more and more reliant on this precious resource for power, irrigation, industrial practices, and daily consumption. Find resources on one of the biggest threats to life and property. An Ecologists Guide to Working with Daymet and other NetCDF-formatted Data, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Precipitation Products and Services at GES DISC, Daymet Single Pixel Data ExtractionWeb Services, How to Import MERRA Surface Product Data into ArcGIS, How to Obtain Data for Conducting Hurricane Case Study, How to Import Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Surface Product Data into ArcGIS, Sentinel-1 and Phased-Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) Recipes for Mapping Inundation, Soil Moisture Data at NASA's National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC (NSIDC DAAC), NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Data Products, Download and Visualize SMAP Data using Python, Learn how to Search, Order, and Customize SMAP Data using Earthdata Search, Discovering and Differentiating Data with NSIDC Search, Operation IceBridge Come Discover a Decade of Polar Data, Water Quality Data at NASA's Ocean Biology DAAC (OB.DAAC), Bio-Optical in situ Data Discovery and Access with the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), Discover NASA Ocean Color Data, Services and Tools, SeaWiFS Data Analysis System (SeaDAS)Enabling the Study of our Planet from Space, Tools and Concepts in SeaDAS (Case Study: Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies). .vertical-line-left { Approximately one-sixth of Earths population is dependent upon freshwater output from this seasonal snowpack and glacial ice melt for daily use. Pew applies a rigorous, analytical approach to improve public policy, inform the public, and invigorate civic life. } } { -moz-box-shadow: 0 10px 20px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.19), 0 6px 6px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.23); } } The water costs should not exceed3 per centof household income. .blue-well a, .blue-well a:hover, .blue-well a:active { font-size: 32.24px; padding-top: 5px; } right: 20px; In the U.S., for example, discussions to build freshwater pipelines from water-rich regions like Alaska, the Great Lakes, or the Mississippi River to food-producing regions like the Central Valley or the southern High Plainsto grow food for Americanshave always been politically charged. } } 2025: The projected year in which over half of the worlds population will reside in water-stressed areas.

margin-top: 5rem; } As the global population grows, there is an increasing need to balance all of the competing commercial demands on water resources, so that communities have enough for their needs. border-top: solid #aaa 1px; And we can adjust our diet, turning to foods that require less water. Are neighboring countries willing and prepared to accept potentially displaced populations? padding: 0.5rem 1rem 1.75rem 1rem; Water is at the core of sustainable development and is critical for socio-economic development, energy and food production, healthy ecosystems and for human survival itself. background-color: #f5f5f5; The Sun influences a variety of physical and chemical processes in Earths atmosphere. font-weight: 600; .blue-well-large-text { }*/ background-color: #009edb; 2002: The year NASA Earth launched the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observing mission. opacity: 0.7; .text-tagline { /* -- end added by Tulin -- */ margin-right: 0.3em; font-size: 2em !important; margin-bottom: 1em; } .observances { border-bottom: none; margin: 1em 0 0.5em 0; border-radius: 0px; .vertical-line-right { padding: 5rem; Several of the hot spots for groundwater depletion cross state or international borders, and many such regions are already prone to conflict. The water must be safe, acceptable and affordable. line-height: normal !important;

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6is to Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Groundwater storage around the world is on the decline, largely as a response to human consumption, primarily from irrigation. background: #009EDB; With less than two decades of data from the GRACE mission, we cannot say conclusively that these patterns are driven by climate change. color: #009edb; } Diarrhoea is estimated to cause 1.5 million child deaths per year, mostly among children under five living in developing countries. p { One of the most important recent milestones has been the recognition in July 2010 by the United Nations General Assembly of thehuman right to water and sanitation. Jay Famiglietti is a professor and the executive director of the Global Institute for Water Security at the University of Saskatchewan, where he holds the Canada 150 research chair in hydrology and remote sensing. } background: #eee; } (, 2 billion people live in countries experiencing high water stress. } There have been chronic droughts in Eastern Europe, while in the Caspian-Aral Sea region in Asia, long-term drought is drying out once great inland seas. Making NASA's free and open Earth science data interactive, interoperable, and accessible for research and societal benefit both today and tomorrow. { padding-right: 6px; padding: 0 1px 0 5px; } } content: "\f105"; ul.block-list li.leaf:before { Or will food production migrate to where more water is available? } The amount of water in our rivers and lakes is important in assessing water availability and in preparing for possible water-related events, such as floods and drought. text-decoration: underline; UN Photo/Martine Perret. float: right !important; Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS), Open Data, Services, and Software Policies, Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program, Commercial Smallsat Data Acquisition (CSDA) Program, Interagency Implementation and Advanced Concepts Team (IMPACT), Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC), fire information for resource management system (firms), open data, services, and software policies, earth science data systems (esds) program, commercial smallsat data acquisition (csda) program, interagency implementation and advanced concepts team (impact), earth science data and information system (esdis) project, earth observing system data and information system (eosdis), distributed active archive centers (daacs), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission data from Earthdata Search, Groundwater Data at NASA's Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Center (ASF DAAC), Groundwater Data at NASA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory DAAC (ORNL DAAC), Groundwater Data at NASA's Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC), Groundwater Data at NASA's Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Data Access and Visualization of Model Data at NASA's Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS): NASA's Next-Generation Mission to Measure Evapotranspiration from the International Space Station, Making Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data Accessible- New Sensors, Tools and Services, Working with ECOSTRESS Evapotranspiration Data, Rain Data at NASA's Global Hydrometeorology Resources Center DAAC (GHRC DAAC), Data Access and Visualization of Model Data at GES DISC, NetCD-what? The atmosphere is a gaseous envelope surrounding and protecting our planet from the intense radiation of the Sun and serves as a key interface between the terrestrial and ocean cycles. The cryosphere encompasses the frozen parts of Earth, including glaciers and ice sheets, sea ice, and any other frozen body of water. The human dimensions discipline includes ways humans interact with the environment and how these interactions impact Earths systems. Each day is marked by a public campaign which is about raising awareness of the issues, focusing attention on a particular theme, and inspiring action. margin-bottom: 35px; padding: 1em 1em;

.blue-well p, .blue-well ol, .blue-well ul, .blue-well li, .blue-well a, .blue-well a:hover, .blue-well a:active { padding: 20px; Around the world, surface waterour rivers, lakes, and reservoirsand our groundwater must be managed jointly, as components of one interconnected water supply. content:'\f17b'; box-shadow: 0 10px 20px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.19), 0 6px 6px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.23); Healthy water is essential to support and sustain life. width: 25% !important; } blockquote p::before { Coping with water scarcity in agriculture: a global framework for action in a changing climate, Coping with water scarcity: An action framework for agriculture and food security, UN World Water Development Report 2006: Water: a shared responsibility, Human Development Report 2006: Beyond scarcity: Power, poverty and the global water crisis, Thirsting for a Future: Water and children in a changing climate, National Drought Management Policies Initiative, Summary Progress Update 2021: SDG 6 water and sanitation for all, Print with images and } .international-items.resolution { left: 5%; color: #009edb; box-shadow: 5px 5px 3px #f2f2f2; } Contaminated water and a lack of basic sanitation are undermining efforts to end extreme poverty and disease in the worlds poorest countries. It also explores the vulnerability of human communities to natural disasters and hazards. These aquifers appear as bright-red hot spots on the map, and they are found on every continent except Antarctica. background: rgba(77,77,77,0.9); Simultaneously, the mid-latitudesthe arid to semiarid belt sandwiched in betweenare getting drier. If governments, nonprofits, development banks, academic researchers, industry, and policymakers can come together, we may be able to turn our freshwater challenges into a net positive. -o-transition: all 0.25s ease-in-out; The shifting patterns of water availability, along with falling groundwater levels, will further limit access to drinking water and water for irrigation, presenting new socio-economic and political implications. It is critical for maintaining species diversity, regulating climate, and providing numerous ecosystem functions. letter-spacing: normal; Global changes are altering where and how we get fresh water, sparking the need for worldwide cooperation. Please consider the environment before printing. padding: 10px 0px; States such as California and nations such as China, India, and Argentina are already doing this or considering it. ul.underline-links li a, ol.underline-links li a { .flag-container { .text-lead-lg { Although originating from below the surface, these processes can be analyzed from ground, air, or space-based measurements. } Over 2 billion people already lack access to safe drinking water at home. .country { height: 205px;

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border-bottom: dotted 0.1rem #ffffff; } .blue-well ol, .blue-well ul { Hot spots in which drought extremes have been intensifying at dangerously high rates are also apparent on the map. .un-anniversaries { } The Assembly recognized the right of every human being to have access toenough water for personal and domestic uses, meaning between 50 and 100 litres of water per person per day. bottom: 20px; margin: auto 0 1.5rem 0; max-width: 60%; } Unclean water and poor sanitation are a leading cause of child mortality. float: left; These patterns arent seen in previous water maps, most of which were built from ground-based data. } Can water managers continue to ensure reliability as the amount of water entering a region as precipitation, snowmelt, or stream flow becomes much more variable and uncertain? In 2017, 2 billion people worldwide did not have access to basic sanitation facilities such as toilets or latrines. } We are driven by the power of knowledge to solve today's most challenging problems. In particular, women and girls must have access to clean, private sanitation facilities to manage menstruation and maternity in dignity and safety. .node-sidebar-item-body .menu > li > a { left: 5%; } list-style: circle !important; .heading-center-underline { At the human level, water cannot be seen in isolation from sanitation. text-align: right; font-size: 32.24px; color:#009edb; list-style: inherit; background-color: #009edb; By opening venues for discussing water policy, by sharing data, by developing new physicaland socialinfrastructure, we can create a new worldwide water diplomacy that treats this universal, vitally needed resource as an inspiration for cooperation rather than conflict. .blue-well { margin: 4rem 0 auto 0; /*top: 100px;*/ The May 2018 launch of GRACE Follow-On, a continuation of the original GRACE mission, will ensure a steady flow of additional data in the years to come. .node-sidebar-item-body p a:hover { .international-items { -ms-transition: all 0.25s ease-in-out; (, 80 per cent of wastewater flows back into the ecosystem without being treated or reused. This disappearance of groundwater places regional and global water and food security at increasing risk. border-left: solid #eeeeee 5px; } .observance-item-title a { .blue-well a:hover { color:#ffffff; .top-padding { font-weight: 700; The Central Valley and Ogallala aquifers in the U.S.; the Northwest Sahara aquifer system; across the Middle East, northwestern India, and northern Bangladesh; the North China Plain aquifer in Beijing; the Pilbara basin in northwestern Australia; and the Guarani aquifer in southern South America are all being overly exploited. padding: 10px; color:#009edb; padding: 1rem 0 1rem 0; } .main-container.container { } margin-bottom: 3em; Of course, there is also action each of us can take as individuals. padding-right: 6px; text-align: center;

Photo: WFP/Phil Behan, Aerial shots of Ricefields near Baucau, Timor Leste. @media only screen and (min-width: 1200px) { } Find and use NASA Earth science data fully, openly, and without restrictions. Agriculture has great potential for water saving by improving efficiency through more precise and focused irrigation and by breeding plants for drought tolerance. Print just text, Click here to see the latest data on water use efficiency in the SDG 6 Data Portal. .blue-well h3, .blue-well h4 { box-shadow: inset 0 1px 1px rgba(0,0,0,0.05); We provide a variety of ways for Earth scientists to collaborate with NASA. #memberStatesIndex { The targets cover all aspects of both the water cycle and sanitation systems, and their achievement is designed to contribute to progress across a range of other SDGs, most notably on health, education, economics and the environment. color:#ffffff !important; .image-metadata { font-weight: 500; font-size: 18px !important; } Hot spots in which drought extremes have been intensifying at dangerously high rates are also apparent on the map. border-top: #009edb solid 3px; (, Today, 1.42 billion people including 450 million children live in areas of high or extremely high water vulnerability. border: 1px solid #e3e3e3; (, 297,000 children under five die every year from diarrhoeal diseases due to poor sanitation, poor hygiene, or unsafe drinking water. padding: 1em 1em; @media only screen and (min-width: 992px) { } font-family: FontAwesome; } border-top: 2px dashed #aaa; } A pound of beef, for example, requires roughly four times as much water to produce as a pound of chicken. padding:5px 10px !important; display: block;

Dont miss our latest facts, findings, and survey results in The Rundown. .top-bottom-dashed-line { .node-sidebar-item-body ul li a:hover { Moreover, the water source has to be within 1,000 metres of the home and collection time should not exceed 30 minutes. list-style-type: decimal; font-size: 4.5rem !important; } } width: 95%; ol.ol-decimal, ol.ol-lower-latin { Water quality can be monitored in a variety of ways, but through satellite remote sensing, the primary way is through ocean color, which is impacted by chlorophyll content, sediment, and dissolved organic matter. -webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 1px rgba(0,0,0,0.05); } padding-bottom: 0px; -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.24); } (, 3.2 billion people live in agricultural areas with high to very high water shortages or scarcity, of whom 1.2 billion people roughly one-sixth of the worlds population live in severely water-constrained agricultural areas. .text-blue {

} /* -- begin added by Gedi --*/ padding: 0 1px 0 5px; color:#ffffff; background: url( no-repeat; margin: 1.5rem 0; padding: 15px 0; content:'\f179'; margin-top: 1em; } TheWater for Life International Decade for Action 2005-2015helped around 1.3 billion people in developing countries gain access to safe drinking water and drove progress on sanitation as part of the effort to meet the Millennium Development Goals. letter-spacing: normal; } But there are areas in which we can make progress. .observance-item { text-align: center; padding: 5rem; padding: 1rem; padding-left: 40px; padding: 0 1px 0 5px; A 2012 WHO studyshows that every US $1 invested in improved sanitation translates into an average global economic return of US $5.5. -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.24); border-top: solid #eeeeee 5px; padding-left: 2em; border-bottom: dotted 0.1rem #333333; h3.header-lg { In fact, most of the worlds food-producing regions are in a state of chronic water scarcity, with no end in sight given current rates of production and levels of agricultural efficiency. } background: #4d4d4d; Drought in Niger in 2011. } Conserving Marine Life in the United States, International Boreal Conservation Campaign, Protecting Coastal Wetlands and Coral Reefs, U.S. Public Lands and Rivers Conservation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports, The Water Cycle is Broken But We Can Fix It, Groundwater: Unseen But Increasingly Needed, Sometimes Water Should Be Left Where It Is, Five Questions: Bringing Water to Those in Need, Voices: When You Can't Take Water for Granted. The hardships, damage, and loss of life caused by increases to both flooding and drought can be expected to continue. } The availability of fresh water is rapidly changing all over the world, creating a tenuous future that requires attention from policymakers and the public. (, Nearly half the global population are already living in potential water scarce areas at least one month per year and this could increase to some 4.85.7 billion in 2050. 673 million people still practised open defecation. border-bottom: none; .node-sidebar-item-body { Water scarcity can mean scarcity in availability due to physical shortage, or scarcity in access due to the failure of institutions to ensure a regular supply or due to a lack of adequate infrastructure. } Knowing when, where, and how much rain will fall improves crop forecasts and can benefit agriculture. .observance-item-title { padding: 9px; We can use more efficient plumbing and reduce outdoor watering at home. } display: inline-block;

/*padding: 35px 35px; button { /* ******* phone ********** */ (, When a territory withdraws 25% or more of its renewable freshwater resources it is said to be water-stressed. font-size: 1.75rem !important; box-shadow: 5px 5px 3px #f2f2f2; Measuring rainfall helps advance our understanding of Earth's water cycle, improving forecasts of extreme events such as flooding, landslides, and drought. Poor monitoring and management of groundwater relative to surface water, as is typical in much of the world, has resulted in its rapid disappearance. text-align: right; @media only screen and (min-width: 992px) { } Whether you are a scientist, an educator, a student, or are just interested in learning more about NASAs Earth science data and how to use them, we have the resources to help. .international-items.resolution { bottom: 30px; /* ******************** end added by Gedi ***************** */. padding: 2rem; p { Print with images and -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.24); border: 1px solid #e3e3e3; -webkit-box-shadow: 0 10px 20px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.19), 0 6px 6px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.23); Will Chinas great thirst spark new conflict beyond its boundaries as it takes water from the Mekong River, which flows through five other nations?