tree worship in indus valley civilization


The current Covid-19 pandemic is but one smallexample of how the earth is reminding us to slow down, take a breath and relish in the joy of Natures sublime intelligence. Chapter XV of the Bhagavad Gita, known as Purushottama Yoga (the Yoga of the Supreme Self), begins with a description of a giant peepal tree with it roots above (urdhvamulam) and branches below (adhahsakham). The Upanishads are deep philosophical reflections into the nature of reality as presented by countless wise sages. Although a consecrated fire was the central element of every homa ritual, the procedure and items offered to the fire varied by what was the occasion of the ceremony, or by the benefit expected from the ritual. It speaks in a whispery tongue of knowledge and wisdom, vEda. This is truly that (II.3.1-2). Nothing in these complex yet colourful legends is fixed and firm. Tree worship, mainly a fig species like banyan or pipal sacred fig tree, is an integral part of ancestral worship (Not to be confused with veneration of dead, where all the dead ancestors spirits are included. As depicted in the notoriously undecipherable Indus script, it is believed that tree worship played an important role in this distant civilization. The Yajur-Veda contained the details of the platform to be made, dedicated to the deity in whose homage the homa was going to be recited. Many ethnologists hoped to unify Indo-Iranian, Celtic, Norse, Greek and Roman into a Proto-Indo-European religion. The Chinese syllable fan is the well-known phrasing of Brahma. Such a name seems peculiar for a prosperous city like this. In turn, it looked back to age-old belief of the Indus Valley Civilization followed by the Vedic religion. It is normally used to sublimate and redirect sexual energy and can endow the practitioner with spiritual powers. These special stumps are fed and cared for by local kin trees via their complex underground root structures and symbiotic fungal networks. Some are wearing bison horns, venerating the tree goddess. Updated on: 16 August,2020 07:00 AM IST  |  Mumbai Granted our personal relationships with the trees has changed over time, but then again, nothing in this life is stable; and every old tree on this planet is a living guru of that primordial truth. Linga stones in modern Hinduism are used to represent the erect male phallus or the male reproductive power of the god Siva. She is our mother and we respect her. Sanujit, . Yogi's penis is erect, with both testicles prominently visible. The city can be located because the circumstances are narrated in detail. A large tiger rears upwards by the yogi's right side, facing him. The Sama-Veda Samhita (from sman, the term for a melody applied to metrical hymn or song of praise) consisted of 1549 stanzas, taken almost entirely (except for 78 stanzas) from the Rig-Veda. The text is organized in 10 books, known as Mandalas, of varying age and length. Web. In all events, the arrangement was in the middle of a space, which could be either outdoors or indoors. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and University of Missouri. Therefore, it is associated with the mother goddess. The Vedic period was held to have ended around 500 BCE, Vedic religion with time evolving into the various schools of Hinduism. Though the reflection is no reality nor substantiality, it emphasizes the need for duality, materialistic versus realistic, so that one can better understand the substance and reality by observing both juxtaposed together. document.getElementById( "ak_js_1" ).setAttribute( "value", ( new Date() ).getTime() ); Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. The arrangement is very conventional and from the lower part of its stem spring two heads similar to those of the so-called unicorn (Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilisation, Volume II, 1931, p 390). Phallic symbols close to the Hindu Shiva lingam was located in the Harappan ruins. A number of gold, terra-cotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses showed the presence of some dance form. When republishing on the web a hyperlink back to the original content source URL must be included. With the spread of Buddhism, the Buddhist swastika reached Tibet and China. in Culture, Dravidian, Indian civilization, Indus valley civilization, Proto-Dravidian, Worship The swastika is used in all Hindu yantras and religious designs. This mode of worship had been preserved even now in Hinduism, which needed recitations from the Vedas by a purohita (priest). Like present day USAs trade and economic might influenced many cultures across the world and spread many cultural symbolisms across, it was the Indus valley civilizations trade and economic might, which influenced many societies in those ancient times.

Wohlleben asks: Do tree societies have second-class citizens just like human societies? Should we not afford that same kindness and high regard to her? One reason why we continue to abuse the planet is that we no longer see her as a person, as a living entity; but that is what the earth is: a tiny blue-green sphere in space teeming with billions of lifeforms. Listen to it. The World History Encyclopedia logo is a registered trademark. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The late Vedic period (9th to 6th centuries BCE) marked the beginning of the Upanisadic or Vedantic period. Sign up for our free weekly email newsletter! The logical explanation for the existence of these sacred groves is that they maintained the biodiversity of the land. There is an imperishable banyan tree, which stood the test of time, which has its roots upwards and its branches down, and which has Vdic hymns as leaves. During this period of intellectual ferment, two other traditions evolved in South Asia: Buddhism and Jainism. But this ostensible human progress is concomitant with a distancing of humanity from Nature; a separation which makes it all the easier for humans to extract and exploit natural resources. To cut short a fascinating tale of astral importance with religious nuance, it was the city of Lanka which had the place of honour as the prime meridian passed through it in 3102 BCE. And like them, the purpose of our bodies Also download the new mid-day Android and iOS apps to get latest updates. Its not Arabic numerals. At a ceremony commemorating the 2,500th anniversary of Mahaviras attainment of complete knowledge (kevala-jana), this sutra was adopted by all sects of Jainism as the central message of Mahaviras philosophy. https://www.worldhistory.org/article/230/religious-developments-in-ancient-india/. Without moving into later developments like the Puranas (around 200 BCE and after), Hinduism writ large, in conversation with Buddhism, Jainism and other schools of thought, developed multiple ways of living that harmonised human development with a respect for Nature. But again, these stones could be something entirely different from objects of religious worship. The city covered around 200 hectares of land and at its height might have had a population of 85, 000 people.

World History Encyclopedia is a non-profit organization. In 1906-07 CE at Boghaz Keui (about eighty miles to the south east of Ankara, modern capital of Turkey) Hugo Winkler discovered the great state archive of the Chatti Empire containing more than 10,000 cuneiform tablets written in Akkadian cuneiform. A number of scholars made out that meluhha was the Sumerian name for mleccha, meaning non-Vedic, barbarian. Of these, the first three were the principal original division, also called "tray vidy", implying "the triple sacred science" of reciting hymns (RV), chanting (SV) and performing sacrifices (YV). to our, No curbs on Ganesh festival, other religious events: CM Eknath Shinde, Mumbai may witness mini swine flu wave, experts warn, Mumbai: State clears resumption of Metro-3 car shed work at Aarey, Thane: Potholes, traffic woes leave commuters fuming; TMC promises prompt action, Sri Lanka's new President Wickremesinghe to swear in Cabinet on Friday. The deity sitting in a yoga-like position suggests that yoga may have been a legacy of the very first great culture that occupied India. The Yajur-Veda Samhita had archaic prose mantras and also in part of verses borrowed and adapted from the Rig-Veda. This period heralded the beginning of much of what became classical Hinduism, with the composition of the Upanishads, later the Sanskrit epics, still later followed by the Puranas. In ancient times, among many communities and among the four classical civilizations: Chinese, Egyptian, Indian and Mesopotamian, tree worship is first recorded in the Harappan civilization or otherwise called the Indus valley or Indian civilization, which could possibly be a Dravidian or Proto-Dravidian culture. Excavation at this level was impossible due to the high water table that made even simple excavations of Mohenjo-daro difficult. Since the culture came after the collapse of the Harappan civilisation, it shows the hymns were the result of the mixing of immigrating Indo-Aryans with residents of the earlier Harappan cities. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2022) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. As the former was Alor, and the latter was almost certainly the Pattale of the Greeks or Haiderabad, the recorded distances fix the position of O-fan-cha in the immediate neighbourhood vicinity of the ruins of an ancient city called Bambhra-ka-Thul or simply Bambhar. Arguably the most famous Vedic hymn today is the Gayatri Mantra which is a praise poem to Savitur, the sun. Mention the evidence which suggests that the Harappan people worshiped: The trees and animals. No parallels to these mass-produced inscriptions are known in any other early ancient civilizations. There are images of men with plumes or twigs in their head. The Adityas, Vasus, Rudras, Sadhyas, Ashvins, Maruts, Rbhus, and the Vishvadevas ("all-gods") as well as the "thirty-three gods" were the groups of deities mentioned. The earliest sure use of swastika motifs in the archaeological record goes to the Neolithic epoch. Srinivas Reddy Instead, since early in the 20th century CE, following Meillet, Thieme and Kuiper, the social function of the Indo-Iranian Asura/ditya deities was stressed; they were an innovative group not found in Indo-European religion. MJ Akbar Click here to join our channel (@middayinfomedialtd) and stay updated with the latest news. Heinrich Zimmer agrees that the Pashupati figure shows a figure in a yoga posture. The farming communities do not encroach on this particular stretch of property. This ancient Indian Tree of Life is one element of Indian culture that has persisted for millennia. One of my all-time favorite books is The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They CommunicateDiscoveries from a Secret World by German forester and author Peter Wohlleben. In the Vedic literature, the Veda was one the Rig-Veda. Under these trees, oracles and soothsayers enter into trance altered state listen to these Munis voices, converse with them to be able to foresee the future or get advice on peoples earthly problems. But Nature is our Great Mother.

The legend on the seal cited: the epoch (Kali Yuga the present epoch we live in) set off at the beginning of the sign of the goat on Wednesday at sunrise at Lanka. "Religious Developments in Ancient India." There was a mutual respect between humans and Nature; and it was born of a visceral, lived understanding of our codependent interconnectedness. It speaks, babbles, whispers in a language of ancient knowledge and wisdom. The practise of worshipping trees continues across India in many communities even today. What a beautiful way to live in peace and harmony. His derivation is (a + svas + root stha), that is the negative particle a with svas (tomorrow) and root stha (the standing, or that which remains). Therefore, one must stay away from it.Many communities in Jharkhand, for example, are demanding that "Sarnaism" or worship of trees and sacred groves be distinguished from the overarching all-absorbing framework of Hinduism. This holistic view of human life is a natural extension of Buddhist/Jain discourse on the nature of reality. Copyright 2022 Mid-Day Infomedia Ltd. All Rights Reserved. The Rig-Veda was counted among the four canonical sacred texts (ruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas. It is known as The Heart's Seal. Coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor in Western Baluchistan to Lothal in Gujarat. For every deity there were separate chanting and separate platform for the ritual of yagna. It is said that the goddess resides on sacred trees, or in sacred orchards, and plays on the swing with her companions. It is also seen as pointing in all four directions (north, east, south and west) and thus implies stability. These names were nearly identical with the Vedic gods Indra, Varuna, Mitra and Nasatya. The Great Bath might also be linked to the concept of river worship, much like the worship of the River Ganga today. Though these spirits are believed to dwell in banyan or pipal or in some very rare cases palmyra palm, they mostly prefer to live in a great banyan with hundreds of thousands of arial roots shooting down towards earth. The elephant probably represents central and eastern India, the bull or buffalo south India and the rhinoceros the regions west of the Indus river. Hare Krishna. The prose hymns here were again taken from the Rig-Veda. Researchers have found that some stumps are kept alive for centuries by neighbouring trees. In addition, the Vedas were said to be "apaurashaya", a Sanskrit word meaning uncreated by man and which further revealed their eternal non-changing status. World History Encyclopedia. The babool tree is identified by its peculiar branch patterns and its thorns. If it is a pipal, much better. A rationalexplanation, Hemchand Tularam Granted our personal relationships with the tree has changed over time, but then again, nothing in this life is stable; and every old tree on this planet is a living guru of that primordial truth. The Rig-Vedic hymns were dedicated to various deities, chief of whom being Indra, a heroic god praised for having slain his enemy Vrtra; Agni, the sacrificial fire; and Soma, the sacred potion or the plant it was made from. and provide personalised recommendations. What are thought to be linga stones have been dug up. Certainly, the peepal tree is! The chief city, named 'O-fan-cha' was at 700 li or 117 miles from the capital of the upper Sind, and 50 miles from Pitasala, the capital of lower Sind. Change), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The upside down reflection of the great banyan tree has its arial roots upwards and branches below. In these mighty trees dwell in the spirits of ancestors, it is said. The idea behind this tree worship in ancient times by the Indus people is to give credit to and venerate the wise ancestors of this world (or perhaps even other worlds or other dimensions), without whose knowledge and wisdom there wont be any civilizational process and thus the existence of healthy societies. The Great Mound, or Citadel, stood out the west end of Mohenjo-daro. Sanskrit proverb. This was reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *ueid-, meaning "see" or "know". |. Joseph Campbell in an essay on The Neolithic-Palaeolithic Contrast cites an ornament on a Late Palaeolithic (10,000 BCE) mammoth ivory bird figurine found near Kiev as the only known occurrence of such a symbol predating the Neolithic. The priests performed the solemn rituals for the noblemen (Kshsatriya) and some wealthy merchants (Vaishyas). The people of the Indus Valley also appear to have worshipped a male god. Our publication has been reviewed for educational use by Common Sense Education, Internet Scout, Merlot II, OER Commons and School Library Journal. These trees are believed to be the gateways used by these Munis to travel between different dimensions, from spirit world to this material world and vice versa. This memory manifests in the celebration of native flora. Last modified May 01, 2011. The Sanskrit word vda "knowledge, wisdom" was derived from the root vid- "to know". Hermes in Greek is the muted term for Brahma. One of the things in the about-4,000-year-old Harappan seals is the value placed on trees. The great Indus valley civilization was, then, the only known industrialized mature civilization, which traded right, left and center with other peers like Mesopotamians and Egyptians, but largely with the nearest neighbor, Mesopotamians. The Atharva-Veda was less common than other Vedas as it was little used in solemn ritual. There are images of these trees located within an enclosure and worshipped. As Sir John Marshall, Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India from 1902 to 1928, asserted: The plant has been identified as the pipal tree, which in India is the Tree of Creation. Cite This Work Sign up to receive interesting long form stories of Politics, Post-Harappan settlements in the Yamuna-Ganga doab promoted agriculture, trade and city building. Agni (fire), Indra (rain), Vayu (wind), Usha (dawn) and Soma (moon) are just a few of the examples of how the Vedic people sublimated themselves to Natures awesome power, not as fearful and passive savages, but as intelligent and creative people in a natureloving society. As new life grows in, on and all around her, she carries on with the support of her children and grandchildren. This ancestors spirit is called Muni or MuniAndi or MunIswaran (Muni: an ascetic, sage, hermit or spirit being, Andi: one who renounced everything or slave of God or ruler himself, Iswaran: Lord or ruler or akin to Eshwara, the God Shiva). Vedic scriptures also refer to the trees from the Indian subcontinent such as the peepal tree, the banyan tree and the babool tree. Proto-Indo-Iranian religion meant the religion of the Indo-Iranian peoples prior to the earliest Vedic (Indo-Aryan) and Zoroastrian (Iranic) scriptures. The most important depiction of an imagined Hinduism god is seal number 420. In some cases however, a stump remains alive; it stays green with lifegiving chlorophyll. The "family books": mandalas 2-7, were the oldest part of the Rig-Veda and the shortest books; they were arranged by length. Four gods were called upon as witness to this treaty in the records: In-da-ra, Uru-w-na, Mi-it-ra and Na-sa-at-ti-ia. The religion of the Vedic period (also known as Vedism or Vedic Brahmanism or, in a context of Indian antiquity, simply Brahmanism was a historical predecessor of Hinduism. From all these discussions, it seemed certain that what Hwen Tsang visited was the city of Mohenjo-daro and its real name was Brahma-sthal or Brahmanabad. Map of the Indus Valley CivilizationDbachmann (GNU FDL). The swastika symbol (right-hand) was believed to have been stamped on Gautama Buddha's chest by his initiates after his death. All the worlds are contained in it, and there is nothing whatsoever beyond it. More generally the Upanishads are so named because they were teachings imparted under the cooling shade of a tree. It was a stellar ceremony marking the equinox at the star constellation of Krittika - Alcyon. We have forgotten that we are not separate from Nature, we are not her master; if anything, she is ours. How Vladimir Putin has exploited the liberal disorder and survived the sanctions, Keerthik Sasidharan Steatite seals had images of animals, people (perhaps gods), and other types of inscriptions, including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilization. It is rather the degree of connectionor maybe even affectionthat decides how helpful a trees colleagues will be (Hidden Life, pp 4-5). Well over 400 distinct Indus symbols, some say 600, have been found on seals, small tablets, or ceramic pots and over a dozen other materials, including a signboard that apparently once hung over the gate of an inner citadel. This is a reminder that the Vedic hymns were composed in India. The enduring meaning and mystique of the Mahabharata, Arvind Sharma Converse with it. Philological and linguistic evidence implies that the Rig-Veda was composed in the north-western region of India, roughly between 17001100 BCE (the early Vedic period). There was a gap between the mound and the lower city. Facing right it signifies the evolution of the universe; facing left it typifies the involution of the universe. The ensuing centuries, leading up to the present, witnessed great advancements in human creativity and ingenuity, but our overinflated sense of progress wrought incalculable damage upon our Mother Earth. indus The scholars Parpola and Asfaq identified another seal (M 430) found at Mohenjo-daro as the one relating to a unique ritual of equinox. Homa (also known as homam or havan) was a Sanskrit word which referred to any ritual in which making offerings into a consecrated fire was the primary action. This belief of sacred groves and their branches and thorns protecting humans from wild animals is featured a lot in contemporary tribal mythology too. The Avestan scholars affirmed that many Vedic gods were revived, though they were below the supreme god Ahura Mazda. They do not compete, they cooperate. Now even modern science is slowly, slowly, coming around to shed light on these simple truths. Would any one of us ever strike our mothers or pollute her in any way? World History Encyclopedia. A sort of drink (possibly a hallucinogenic drink) is offered to these trees as thank-offering. Trees love each other like humans, they have families and they nurture each other with empathy for their entire lives. Vedic religion also influenced Buddhism and Jainism. Sigh! Several scholars held that Indo-Aryans reached Assyria in the west and the Punjab in the east before 1500 BCE. In closing, I wanted to share an example from Wohllebens book that illustrates how plant behaviour can be an exemplar for human interactions. Submitted by Sanujit, published on 01 May 2011.

The Book of Secret Wisdom: The Prophetic Record of Human Destiny and Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Later scholarship had moved away from considering all these religions near-identical. At present, the words homa/homam and havan were interchangeable with the word Yagna. just as rivers flow in constant service As the Katha Upanishad says: Everything in this world, whatever it may be, comes from the life breath and is animated by it. World History Encyclopedia, 01 May 2011. Men who enter this grove, become women. License. One more narration in this regard was in the travel record of Hwen Tsang in 630-635 CE. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilizations that arose there in a similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. Next time, perhaps it will be other way around, and the supporting tree might be the one in need of assistance (Hidden Life, p 4). Wohlleben explains that such a well-cared-for stump was probably the trunk of a particularly old or venerable member of the tree community. Thank you! Proto-Indo-Iranian religion was an archaic offshoot of Indo-European religion. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. The Atharva-Veda embodied an independent parallel tradition to that of the Rig-Veda and Yajur-Veda. This fascinating image of a peepal tree seems to grow in tandem with the heads of two horselike creatures. The discoverer of the Shiva seal (M420), Sir John Marshall and others have claimed that this figure is a prototype of Shiva, and have described it as having three faces, seated on a throne in a version of the cross-legged lotus posture of Hatha Yoga.

to all things beyond themselves. "Religious Developments in Ancient India." It mostly spread along the Indus and the Punjab region, extending into the Ghaggar-Hakra river valley and the Ganga-Yamuna Doab, surrounding most of what is now Pakistan, the western states of modern-day India, as well as extending into south-eastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Baluchistan, Iran. One such symbolism is the tree worship, dendrolatry, which spread across the trade routes of the ancients Indus people and further across all over the world and across the Mesopotamian regions, later where the influential Abrahamic religions occurred and propagated these ideas borrowed from the Indus civilization. Related Content The ancients however seemed to have accessed this knowledge through experiential rather than analytic means. One Harappan clay seal depicts a majestic peepal tree with heart-shaped leaves and widespreading branches. Its use as a Sun symbol can first be seen in its image of the god Surya. This word jodad.o had cognates in many mleccha, meluhha languages. The compilation by each family went on over a long period of time. One holds a leg and says its a tree; another grabs the trunk and says its a giant snake; a third rubs an ear only to think its an oversize fan; and so on. Whereas, in Dravidian ancestral worship, only the rightful ancestors spirits are considered.). Mohenjo-daro was the largest city in the southern portion of the Indus Valley Civilization and important for trade and governance of this area. Nature is omnipresent and omnipotent; and I began to realise how She is constantly nurturing me and looking after me. Although these two new faiths shared many terms, concepts and metaphysical underpinnings with Hinduism, both Buddhists and Jains were different in that they rejected Vedic authority, promoted vegetarianism (ahimsa) and preached that personal striving (srama), not ritual action (yaja), leads to liberation. Many tribes have sacred groves with trees like the Sal, the Mahua, the Neem and the Banyan that no one is allowed to encroach. Of course, we do not readily think of it that way today and often recite it as an auspicious poem that inspires clear thinking (dhimahi dhiyoyona. Of late, Indus sites had been discovered in Pakistan's north-western Frontier Province as well. 21 Aug, 2020, An Indus Valley Civilisation seal from Mohenjodaro depicting a peepal tree and unicorns (Illustration: Saurabh Singh), paropakrya phalanti vks paropakrya vahanti nadya / (LogOut/ When Vedic texts were the oldest surviving evidence of early Indo-European-speaking peoples, it was assumed that these texts preserved aspects of Proto-Indo-European culture with careful accuracy. The peepal tree, this ancient Indian tree of life, is one element of Indian culture that has persisted for millennia. paropakrya duhanti gva paropakrrtham ida arram //, Trees bear fruit, and cows offer milk There is a great banyan tree on the banks of a clear tranquil lake. Please support World History Encyclopedia Foundation. (2011, May 01). The codependence of Nature and humanity is a central concept in both these so-called heterodox schools; and it derives directly from a deep philosophical understanding that all beings are interconnected and dependent upon each other. The Way to God: Selected Writings from Mahatma Gandhi, First Buddhist Women: Poems and Stories of Awakening. Other smaller isolated colonies were found as far away as Turkmenistan. Mohenjo-daro or heap of the dead was the largest city excavated of the Indus Valley or Harappan Civilization. Also invoked were Savitr, Vishnu, Rudra, Pushan, Brihaspati or Brahmanaspati, as well as deified natural phenomena such as Dyaus Pita (the shining sky, Father Heaven ), Prithivi (the earth, Mother Earth), Surya (the sun god), Vayu or Vata (the wind), Apas (the waters), Parjanya (the thunder and rain), Vac (the word), many rivers (notably the Sapta Sindhu the seven rivers starting with the Indus, and the Sarasvati River). The solar energy is the physical form of Surya, Lord of Light and Truth (The Secret of the Veda, p 289). | In other words, Sri Aurobindo is describing a very logical connection between Vedic natureworship and Upanishadic metaphysics. The sacred grove is called Sarna-sthals among Bhils. The Great Bath was a sunken tank on the top of the mound; the tank was 12 meters long, 7 meters wide and was sunk 2.4 meters below the depth of the mud bricks that enclosed it. The offerings sometimes appear as sacrifices to her (either animal or human, we cannot be sure). This hypothesis was supported by the architecture found on the top of the mound. One great lesson they learnt from these trees was to care for all the creatures of your community. When we begin to remember that all the creatures of the planet are part of our extended family, we begin to change our outlook on life and our treatment of the environment. J.R.R. For well over 1,000 years, sacred stories and heroic epics have made up the mythology of Hinduism. World History Publishing is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. One seal shows the reason why this may be important. This kind of multi-derivational logic is an important quality of the Indian episteme, namely that plurality of thought is essential to any human understanding. The peepal tree is identified by its characteristic wide tapering leaves. No one is high, no one is low. India, Around the world and many more.. Srinivas Reddy is a scholar, musician and poet. So, by hiding on top of the tree, the man saves himself from the tiger. Modelling such as this was unknown in the ancient world up to the Hellenistic age of Greece, and I thought, therefore, that some mistake must surely have been made; that these figures had found their way into levels some 3000 years older than those to which they properly belonged. similarities differences beliefs core loyalty belief respect peace ancient etc systems different similar than today hinduism buddhism weebly harappan indus harappan gods indus valley did know looked there