However, a low Precision and a high Recall are observed for fruit class Orange. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on computer vision; 2017. p. 618626. In: 2021 International Conference on Applied and Engineering Mathematics (ICAEM). Densely connected convolutional networks. FOIA
After the feature fusion, we use various fully connected (FC) layers to convert 3D tensor into one dimensional (1D) feature vector.
Do Vision Transformers See Like Convolutional Neural Networks? . The overall steps for attention module are summarized in Eqs (2) and (3). Huang G, Liu Z, Van Der Maaten L, Weinberger KQ. In: Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition; 2017. p. 31563164. Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. However, the fruit images used in the experiments are fine-grained and they did not include the fruits in various conditions such as sliced, dried, and partially covered. They evaluated the proposed model for the classification of Mango ripeness and size, which achieved an accuracy of 93.33% and 92.27% on the RGB image dataset and thermal dataset, respectively. A convolutional neural network (CNN) with four convolutional layers, each followed by a max-pooling layer, fully connected layer and finally, softmax layer, was used for the fruit classification. Boldface represent the highest performance. The lower-level residual blocks give the feature maps with a smaller size. Also, it is computationally cheaper than other methods such as the bilinear approach , which performs the product operation of tensors. IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition; 2018. p. 45104520.  developed the system to classify fruits in retail store by capturing video with installed camera. Automatic fruit classification using random forest algorithm. where is a sigmoid activation function. Hence, our model has not been tried with other user-defined lightweight backbone architectures. Similar patterns are observed in other fruits as well except the second row for banana fruit, where the attention module couldnt capture any region of interest. And Hossain et al. The residual connection helps the flow of gradients through the network. Castro W, Oblitas J, De-la Torre M, Cotrina C, Bazn K, Avila-George H. Classification of cape gooseberry fruit according to its level of ripeness using machine learning techniques and different color spaces, Bark texture classification using improved local ternary patterns and multilayer neural network, Postharvest classification of banana (Musa acuminata) using tier-based machine learning. Maturity status classification of papaya fruits based on machine learning and transfer learning approach. (iii) Our proposed model can be trained and deployed in an end-to-end fashion, which avoids the separate feature extraction and classification steps as in traditional machine learning approach. Fruit-CNN by Murean et al.
Furthermore, Chakraborty et al. Rethinking the inception architecture for computer vision.  with DenseNet model .  used the Fruit-360 dataset with the batch size of 128, epochs of 50, and Adam optimizer along with extensive data-augmentation. PMC legacy view
Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 1995. Similar pattern can also be seen for other metrics (Precision, Recall, and MA_ F1). (i) We propose a novel deep learning method based on the existing MobileNetV2 model along with the attention approach. Our method outperforms all pre-trained models in comparison cohort in all performance metrics as shown in Table 6. Our method has some limitations. Their results show that the VGG-16 model has the highest accuracy of 99.01% during the fruit classification.
Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems. Application of multispectral imaging to determine quality attributes and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit, Deep learning in neural networks: An overview.
Similarly, Bahera et al. We split each dataset to the train and test sets with a ratio 70:30 per category. These blocks do not capture the high-level clues for image recognition as a whole so they are not relevant in our work. IEEE; 2021. p. 12071212. With this strategy, we are able to reduce the training time (1774.10 seconds) compared to all other DL methods.  achieved a classification accuracy of 85.12% using the TL approach on lightweight MobileNetV2  model with a dataset of 3,670 images for five fruits: apple, banana, carambola, guava and kiwi. The VGG-16  is still popular CNN model for the feature extraction and has been used in various domains ranging for medical image analysis  to fruit classification .  proposed a lightweight CNN model for the classification on Fruit-360 dataset, which showed that the performance of CNN is increased by including additional features such as Red-Green-Blue (RGB) color and histogram.
However, existing DL-based methods still have two main limitations. The reason for this might be the features captured from the pre-trained model on ImageNet dataset (which is the large image dataset with millions of images) while other three models are trained from scratch on the fruit-images only. For example, a large fruit dataset was introduced by Murean et al. These spectra were then fed into two machine learning algorithms: support vector machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Recent deep learning methods for fruits classification resulted in promising performance. Femling F, Olsson A, Alonso-Fernandez F. Fruit and vegetable identification using machine learning for retail applications. The dataset is available publicly from . Secondly, the max-pooled tensor and average-pooled tensors are concatenated as suggested by Woo et al. will also be available for a limited time.
Waltner G, Schwarz M, Ladsttter S, Weber A, Luley P, Lindschinger M, et al. Sample accuracy/loss plot with good-fit convergence achieved during training on dataset-1 (Ref. Among the aforementioned techniques, computer vision-based methods are used to classify the diversity of same fruit species as in  and , which may not be robust for different kind of fruit classification, whereas the deep learning-based methods are used to classify variety of fruits [3, 4, 17]. Dataset 1 (D1) : This is a publicly available fruit and vegetable dataset, which contains 15 classes. Similarly, Pa, Ra and F1a represent precision, recall and F1-score for class a. Here, we discuss the visual activation maps of selected images taken from dataset- 3 (D3) for the qualitative analysis of features. Third, the combination of features obtained from other layers of MobileNetV2 would be worth exploring for improving the performance of fruit classifications. Dataset 3 (D3) : This is the largest fruit and vegetable dataset having classes at various levels: 53 classes at first level, 81 fine classes at second level and 125 classes at third level. This dataset is available from the website . However, these methods are with heavy-weight architectures in nature, and hence require a higher storage and expensive training operations due to feeding a large number of training parameters. Our attention module is based on convolutional block attention module (CBAM) proposed by Woo et al. Note that (a), (b), and (c) denote Avacado, Banana and Grape fruits classes, respectively. In: Proc. to section) is shown in Fig 3. Therefore, intelligent systems using computer vision and machine learning methods have been explored for fruit defect identification, ripeness grading, and categorization in the past decade . about navigating our updated article layout. Given that our method consists of two main modules for feature extraction: convolution and attention, we list the sample original images along with a activation heatmap over the original image produced by convolution module and attention module in each row in Fig 7. Although our proposed model utilizes two well-established concepts (convolution and attention), we believe that, to the best of our knowledge, combination of these two concepts for lightweight architecture is the first work in fruit classifications. (ii) Our proposed method requires a smaller number of trainable parameters as we leverage the pre-trained weights for all layers of MobileNetv2 architecture. Fruit Classification Using Deep Learning. The data underlying the results presented in the study are available from the URLs presented in paper itself. where TPa, TNa, FPa and FNa represent true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative for class a. Similarly, a tomato classifier system was proposed in  using traditional image features such as color shape and size. For example, Muhammad et al. Many works [3, 4, 17, 31] reported the promising results on fruit image classification task using deep learning methods. Mobilenets: Efficient convolutional neural networks for mobile vision applications. The convolution module captures the convoluted image features, whereas the attention module captures the salient regions in the image. Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies
arXiv preprint arXiv:170404861. Note that these accuracies are reported from the corresponding article, which are achieved based on the corresponding authors own experimental configuration and hyper-parameter settings. In a similar study, Xiang et al. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics.
The MobileNetV1  model brought the idea of depth-wise separable convolution, which divides the convolution into two sub-tasks: a depth-wise convolution that filters the input and a point-wise convolution (1 1) that combine these filtered values to create new features. For D1, the DenseNet-121  is the second-best performing model with an accuracy of 94.53 while MobileNetV1  has the least classification accuracy (86.69%) being lower by 9.06% with our method. government site. Learn more These fruit images features dimensions were first reduced using principal component analysis (PCA)  and then fed into the classification algorithms such as fed-forward neural network (FNN) and support vector machine (SVM). The complete architecture of MobileNetV1 had a regular (3 3) convolution layer followed by 13 depth-wise separable convolution blocks . Fruit image classification based on Mobilenetv2 with transfer learning technique.
Classification of Diseases in Citrus Fruits using SqueezeNet. The highest accuracy was 93% for fruit classification in their method. MobileNetV2+TL used the self-created fruit dataset with 3,670 images. The traditional computer vision-based methods first extract the low-level features and then perform image classification using the traditional machine learning method, whereas the deep learning-based methods extract the features effectively and perform an end-to-end image classification . A classification accuracy of 98% was reported with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The use of the same input size as that used in pre-trained MobileNetV2 model helps produce highly discriminating features from images. Automatic fruit classification is an interesting problem in the fruit growing and retailing industrious chain because it can help the fruit growers and supermarkets identify different fruits and their status from the stock or containers so as to improve production efficiency and hence business profit.
The .gov means its official. We choose a simple concatenation fusion approach rather than other methods such as the min, max, and sum because the two feature maps contains different properties of an image. Rossum G. Python Reference Manual. Fruit recognition from images using deep learning, Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Informatica. While observing results for dataset D3, we can speculate that the three CNNs (Light-CNN , Fruit-CNN , CNN-Augementation ) have the least performance in comparison to their own performance on other two datasets (D1 and D2). To overcome the existing limitations, we propose a novel lightweight deep learning model based on the MobileNetV2 , which is known to have a lightweight architecture compared to other pre-trained models such as VGG-16 .
Liu C, Liu W, Lu X, Ma F, Chen W, Yang J, et al. (iv) We validate our model utilizing three different fruit datasets to confirm the robustness of our model. An image is worth 16x16 words: Transformers for image recognition at scale.  explored the applicability of the TL approach in fruit classification utilizing a pre-trained model, called SqueezeNet , to classify Mangoes into three grades: extra class, class I and class-II.  proposed a CNN model for fruit classification on the Fruit-360 dataset, which achieved an classification accuracy of 94.35%.
Basically, DL-based method consists of a larger neural network having a numbers of layers, nodes, and activation functions . School of Engineering and Technology, Central Queensland University, North Rockhampton, QLD, Australia, 2 We discuss these methods under two subsections: low level feature-based methods and deep learning methods. To focus on where is an informative part in the fruit image, the implementation of our attention module follow the spatial attention approach. They achieved an accuracy of 95.23% using some data augmentation strategies such as flip, hue/saturation changes and gray-scale. However, the convolution module is able to capture the sufficient features to distinguish the Banana fruits from other fruits as evident from higher classification accuracy of our model reported in Table 3. In addition to the transfer learning, the deep neural networks from scratch were also proposed for fruit classification in literature [4, 16, 17]. They used 925 fruit samples for model training and validation and reported that SVM produced the best F1-measure (70.14%) among twelve different machine learning classifiers.  used the publicly available dataset Fruit-360 and evaluated with various input settings such as grayscale image, RGB images, HSV images, batch size of 60, epochs of 50, fixed train/test split, and so on. National Library of Medicine They used train/test split of 3,213 images in training and 457 images in testing with all image resized to 224 224. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the. IEEE; 2014. p. 164168. Thus, we believe that the convolution and attention modules impart the complementary information for better classification of fruits. In: Innovations in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Date fruits classification using texture descriptors and shape-size features, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Introducing new shape features for classification of cucumber fruit based on image processing technique and artificial neural networks, Stock price forecasting with deep learning: A comparative study, Scene image representation by foreground, background and hybrid features, New bag of deep visual words based features to classify chest x-ray images for covid-19 diagnosis. There was no additional external funding received for this study. Recently, a oil Palm fruit ripeness classification was conducted by Herman et al.
The transfer learning and fine-tuning of MobileNetV1 , InceptionV3  and other CNNs were implemented in  for fruit classification. The site is secure. Note that (a), (b), and (c) denote potato, diamond peach and watermelon fruits classes, respectively. The class-wise Precision (Eq 7), Recall (Eq 8), and F1-score (Eq 9) are calculated for this purpose. Section Related work summarizes the existing works related to fruit image classification. 21st Annual Conference on Information Technology Education; 2020. p. 180186. To prevent model from over-fitting during training, we set 20% of train set for validation and change the learning rate value for each epoch as defined in Eq (6).
Pacific-Rim Symposium on Image and Video Technology; 2019. p. 404415. Deep Learning for Oil Palm Fruit Ripeness Classification with DenseNet. The confusion matrix tabulates the actual classes versus predicted classes. The statistics of all experimental results are presented in Table 3. We present the efficacy of each individual features used in our work on D1. Each row contains the original fruit image, its corresponding heatmaps extracted by Convolution module, and Attention module. While looking at Table 4, our methods has the least trainable parameters compared to all four latest DL methods even though the total parameters in our model are more than the other two CNNs (Light-CNN and CNN+Augmentation). vol. Personalized dietary self-management using mobile vision-based assistance. Since our proposed method is based on MobileNetV2  architecture, the input images must be with the specific size by rescaling. We collect three different kinds of fruit-related datasets (Dataset 1, Dataset 2, and Dataset 3) to perform the fruit classification. The hyper-parameters used in our work are presented in Table 2. These are calculated using confusion matrix from classifications. International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing; 2017. p. 385393. IEEE; 2021. p. 6772. The feature maps acquired from convolution and attention modules are fused using a simple concatenation feature fusion approach as suggested by Sitaula et al. It is clear that our method can produce high Precision (99.00%) and high Recall (100%) for fruit classes Cashew, Onion, and Watermelon. Bhole V, Kumar A. Mango Quality Grading using Deep Learning Technique: Perspectives from Agriculture and Food Industry.
Wang F, Jiang M, Qian C, Yang S, Li C, Zhang H, et al. In this paper, we propose a lightweight deep learning model using the pre-trained MobileNetV2 model and attention module. In this dataset, all existing methods achieve comparatively high performance, which might be due to the fact that images with homogeneous background make them easier to be classified. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. The softmax activation function normalizes the output of a previous dense layer into a probability distribution over output classes. Note that (a), (b), and (c) denote pomegranate good, pomegranate bad and guava good fruits classes, respectively.
Note that the network parameters are rounded on thousands and training time and inference time are estimated on Tesla-P100 GPU with 16GB RAM with Dataset (D1). Keras; 2015.  proposed a lightweight CNN model and compared it with fine-tuned VGG-16 model  for fruit classification on two datasets.